Reducing Control Kicks in PID Controller
Snapshot of the front panel of the simulator:
In this simulator a control system for a process represented by a transfer function model is simulated. The process model is two time constant terms and a time delay in series. The controller is a PID controller with the possibility for the user to select reduced setpoint weight in the proportional and in the serivative terms.
The derivative term is given byer
ud = KpTd d(wdySP-y)/dt
where wd is the weight of value either 1 or 0 (values between 1 ans 0 are not used in practice). Normally wd is 1. With wd equal to 0 the setpoint is effectively removed from the derivative term.
In some PID controllers the user can select a reduced setpoint weight also in the proportional term:
up = Kp(wpySP-y)
where the weight wp can be e.g. 0.3 (normally 1).
Reduced setpoint weight implies that abrupt setpoint changes (as step changes) are not propagated to the control signal. This results in a smoother control signal, but it also causes a somewhat more sluggish control system as far as setpoint tracking is concerned, which may be unfortunate when the controller is a secondary controller in a cascade control system.
An alternative way to achieve a smoother control signal is to simply use a smoother setpoint signal, e.g. changing the setpoint between two values as a ramp in stead of as a step.
The aims of this simulator is to observe the benefits and drawbacks of using reduced setpoint weights in the proportional term and the derivative term of a PID controller, and to see that ramping of the setpoint can be an alternative to reduced setpoint weighting.
In many commercial controllers the user can select reduced setpoint weight in the proportional and in the derivative term. It is important to be aware the benefits and drawbacks of such reduced weighting, and to know about the alternative solution of choosing smooth setpoint changes, a ramped change between two setpoint values.
If the controlled process has default parameter values (i.e. Ku=1, Kv=1, T1=2, T2=1, tau=0.5) proper PID settings are
Kp=3.6; Ti=2.0; Td=0.5
(as found using the Ziegler-Nichols' closed loop method). These settings may be used in the tasks below.
Start the simulator.